The origin of the Rajas of Hindu Samsthans in the Nizam's Dominion goes back to the time of the ancient Hindu Kingdom of Warangal. They were mostly Zamindars and military chiefs who established their authority over the surrounding territories. They were known as Paligars and their territories, Palayams. There were about sixteen Samsthans, which survived till Independence. Some of the important Samsthans in this region were Wanaparthi, Gadwal, Jetprole, Amarchinta, Palvancha, Gopalpet, Gurugunta, Kollapur and Anagundi. The Rajas of the Samsthans were progressive and managed the administration well.
1. The Gadwal Samsthans:
This is situated between the rivers Tungabhadra and Krishna over an area of about 800 sq. miles. After the fall of the Warangal Andhra dynasty in the 14th century, Gadwal transferred its allegiance to the new Bahmani kingdom. According to the family history, Pedda Veera Reddy, Peddanna Bhupaludu, Sarga Reddy, Veera Reddy and Kumara Veera Reddy ruled Gadwal between 1553 and 1704.
During the reign of Nizam Ali Khan Asaf Jah II, the Martha's gained power in certain parts of the Deccan and started collecting 'chouth' or 25% of the revenue known, as 'Do-Amli' are the double government of the Nizam. Raja Sitaram Bhupal died in 1840 and was succeeded by his adopted son, Raja Sitaram Bhupal II. Nizam VII bestowed on him the title of "Maharaja" and he died in 1924 and was survived by his widow and two daughters.
2. Wanaparthy Samsthans:
This is situated in Mahaboobnagar district with an area of about 640 sq.miles. The Rajas of the Samsthans were closely associated with the Qtub Shahi kings. The early Rajas of Wanaparthy kept on army of 2000 infantry and 2000 cavalry. On 17th March 1843, the title of "Balwant" was conferred on Raja Rameshwar Rao as a mark of honour by Sikander Jah. For administrative purposes the Samsthan was divided into two taluqs namely "sugar" and "Kesampet" under to Tahsildars. The "Maharaja" died on 22nd November 1922. He was survived by two sons, Krishna Dev Rao and Ram Dev Rao. This family also represented in the Indian government after Independence.
3. The Samsthan of Jetprol:
It was one of the most ancient and historic Samsthans in the dominion. It is said that Pillalamarri Bethala Reddy was the founder of not only the Jetprole family but also the families of the rajas of Bobbili in Ganjam District, Pittapore (now Pittapuram in Godavari District, Malleswaram in Krishna District and Venkatagiri in Nellore District. The young Raja was given the ruling power by the Nizam when he ascended the 'Gaddi' he dropped his name of Navanita Krishna Yachandra and adopted that of Raja Venkat Laxman Rao Bahadur. The Raja died in 1929 leaving two daughters and his Rani.
4. The Amarchinta Samsthan:
The Amarchinta Samsthan had an area of about 190 sq. miles in Mahabubnagar District. One of the descendants of the family, Raja Sriram Bhupal, died and was survived by his wife. She was accepted as the lawful successor to the Samsthan. Amarchinta Samsthan was noted for fine muslin.
5. Kollapur Samsthan:
Kollapur Samsthan with a large area spanning most of the Nallamala Forest Area on the banks of river Krishna. There are traces of architectural tressures from 2nd century B.C. in this Samsthan. Still one can see hundreds of ancient temples, which were built before 1500 years ago. Kollapur Samsthan played a considerable role in Nizam's era.