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Ground Water Department

A Brief Note On Ground Water Scenario On

Mahabubnagar,Andhra Pradesh.

INTRODUCTION

Mahabubnagar is one of the drought districts in Andhra Pradesh. The geographical area of the district is 18,432 Sq.Kms., consists of 64 mandals with 1549 villages.

GEOLOGICAL FORMATION

Major portion of the District is underlain by the Oldest Geological formation i.e. Archeans. Narrow belt of sedimentary formation along Krishna river which is on the Southern portion of the district. These Sediments also occur as

patches in Kodangal and Shadnagar areas.

DRAINAGE

The drainage of the district is dendritic to sub-dendritic. The whole district falling in Krishna river basin and consisting of 13 sub- basins like Koilsagar, Dindi , Jurala, Saralasagar, Thungabhadra, Krishna-I, Krishna-II, Srisailam, Kagna, Kothur, Alwanpally, Chinnavagu, and Amrabad. Krishna and Thungabhadra are two major rivers traversing the district.

GROUNDWATER ESTIMATIONS - 2007

The Dist is divided in to 59 assessment units (groundwater sheds) with defined hydrological boundaries. Computations of net groundwater availability, its utilization and availability for future use in all the basins for command and non-command areas have been made separately, duly following the methodology recommended by the Groundwater Estimations Committee 1997.

Sl. No.

Description

Command

Non-Command

Total

1

Area considered for recharge in Sq.Km

1442

16641

18083

2

Net Annual Ground water availability in Ha.m

39455

108574

148029

3

Existing Gross annual groundwater draft for all uses Ha.m

5800

66089

71889

4

Net annual availability for future use in Ha. m

33655

42485

76140

5

Stage of development (%)

15

61

49

6

Category

Safe

Safe

Safe

Based on the rate of groundwater exploitation, the watersheds / villages / mandals are categorised into four categories.

Sl. No.

Category

No. of watersheds

No. of mandals

1

Over exploited

2

1

2

Critical

3

4

3

Semi-Critical

12

20

4

Safe

40

39

5

Basins in Forest area

2

0

TOTAL

59

64

RAINFALL

The annual normal rainfall of the district is 604.56mm, out which SW monsoon contributes 446.74mm i.e. 74% and NE monsoon contributes 120.98 mm i.e. 20%, rest in other 2 seasons. The actual rainfall received during the year 2009-10 (up to March 2010) is 704.4 mm which is 22.5% excess to its normal rainfall up to March (575.0 mm).

ANNUAL RAINFALL DISTRIBUTION IN THE DISTRICT FROM 2000-01 TO 2009-10 (UP TO MARCH 2010)

Sl. No.

Period

Normal Rainfall (mm)

Actual Rainfall (mm)

% of deviation

1

2000-01

604.6

668.8

10.6

2

2001-02

604.6

686.6

13.5

3

2002-03

604.6

538.9

-10.9

4

2003-04

604.6

615.7

1.8

5

2004-05

604.6

356.3

-33.7

6

2005-06

604.6

917.2

51.7

7

2006-07

604.6

483.3

-20.1

8

2007-08

604.6

835.0

43.5

9

2008-09

604.6

434.2

-24.0

10

2009-10 (up to Mar 10)

575.0

704.4

22.5

GROUND WATER NET WORK IN THE DISRICT

To monitor the ground water levels in the district 64 piezometers are constructed out of which 53 piezometers are fitted with automatic water level recorders. In addition 10 observation wells are established for ground water level monitoring. The data is being monitored/ retrieved monthly and analyzed with rainfall.

GROUND WATER LEVELS IN THE DISTRICT.

¨ The actual rainfall received up to March 2010 in the Dist is 704.4 mm, which is 22.50% excess to its normal up to the month of March 2010.

¨ The district average depth to ground water levels of March 2010 is 11.39 m(bgl)

¨ The district average depth to ground water levels of March 2009 was 12.34 m(bgl)

¨ An average rise of 0.95 m is observed in the depth to water level when compared

to March 2009

¨ 0.98 m fall in water level is observed in the depth to water level when compared to February 2010 (10.41 m)

DEPLETION IN PREMONSOON GROUNDWATER LEVEL OVER A SPAN OF 34 YEARS (FROM 1975 TO 2009 )

S.No

Year

Depth to water level (mbgl)

Depletion in water level over 1975 (m)

1

1975

7.30

0.00

2

1980

8.20

-0.90

3

1985

9.80

-2.50

4

1990

10.80

-3.50

5

1995

12.00

-4.70

6

2000

17.18

-9.88

7

2005

17.52

-10.22

8

2008

11.15

-3.85

9

2009

13.38

-6.08

DEPLETION IN POST MONSOON GROUNDWATER LEVEL OVER A SPAN OF 34 YEARS (FROM 1975 TO 2009) IN MAHABUBNAGAR DISTRICT

S. No

Year

Depth to water level (mbgl)

Depletion in water level over 1975 (m)

1

1975

2.34

0.00

2

1980

4.58

-2.24

3

1985

5.67

-3.33

4

1990

6.25

-3.91

5

1995

7.80

-5.46

6

2000

12.04

-9.70

7

2005

8.82

-6.48

8

2008

9.90

-7.56

9

2009

8.62

-6.28

STATUS OF DUG / BORE WELLS

145474 bore wells and 5301 dug wells are existing in the Dist. The draft of ground water was by means of dug wells in the district earlier, but it is changed to by means of bore wells in due course may be due to over draft and declining water levels.

Sl.No.

Type of well

Up to 1977-78

Up to 86-87

Up to 93-94

Up to 2009

1

Open wells

53126

72601

82499

5301

2

Bore wells

0

2385

24642

145474

Total

53126

74986

107141

150775

The density of wells is about 8 wells/ Sq.Km. in the district.

PERCENTAGE OF OPEN WELLS & BORE WELLS OVER TOTAL NO. OF WELLS IN THE DIST

Sl.No.

Type of well

Up to 1977-78

Up to 86-87

Up to 93-94

Up to 2009

1

Open wells

100%

97%

77%

3%

2

Bore wells

0%

3%

23%

97%

APWALTA

Totally 158 no. of villages in the Dist are categorised as over exploited and notified under section 11 of APWALTA 2002. Till now ground water investigations for selection of well sites were completed at 209 sites (since inception of WALTA) and recommend 60 no. of sites for drilling of bore wells. 125 sites have been investigated for clearance of sand mining and recommended 15 sites for sand mining. At present 51 no. of rigs have been registered with the Ground Water Department.

PERFORMANCE MONITORING AND EVALUATION SYSTEM (PMES)

(PROGRESS UP TO END OF MARCH 2010)

Sl. No.

Name of the Indicator

Annual Target

Achievement

% of achievement

Remarks

1

Investigations

1000

856

85%

2

Drilling of bore wells

13

31

238%

19-SCP, 12-APCBTMP

3

Monitoring & Evaluation

984

1021

103%

4

Monitoring of Quality parameters

194

154

79%

SCHEME WISE GROUND WATER INVESTIGATIONS CARRIED OUT UP TO END OF MARCH 2010

Sl. No.

Name of the Scheme

No. of proposals

Referred

Examined

Recommended

Balance

1

SCP (MI Bore well scheme & Assigned lands for SC beneficiaries)

169

144

27

25

2

TSP (Selection of bore well sites)

70

70

8

Nil

3

Artificial Recharge Structures ( PTs/ CDs)

97

87

56

10

4

WALTA

21

19

4

2

5

General Irrigation Purpose (including Govt Programmes)

396

22

---

RTI ACT INFORMATION

Sl.no.

No. of proposals

Since inception

1

Received

9

2

Information forwarded

9

3

Pending

nil

GROUNDWATER AWARENESS CAMPAIGN

Groundwater awareness programmes are being carried out in the specific villages in the Dist under Hydrology project. Accordingly during this year 2009-10 Dooskal Village, Farooqnagar (M) Mahabubnagar Dist, which is the one of the over exploited village of safe basin is chosen to carry out the same.

Dooskal Village, Farooqnagar (M) Mahabubnagar Dist is falling in micro basin MBNR_D_44_SHADNAGAR (which is a part of lower Krishna sub basin in the Mahabubnagar dist). The basin is with an area of 17577 Ha covering 15 no. of villages in Kothur (7 no.) and Farooqnagar (8 no.) mandals of Mahabubnagar Dist. As per the Groundwater Estimations 2007 the basin is categorized as the safe basin with 56% stage of groundwater development. The stage of groundwater development of the villages in the basin is as follows.

Name of the mandal in the basin

No. of villages

Over exploited

Critical

Semi-Critical

Safe

Farooqnagar

4

0

3

1

Kothur

0

1

2

4

Total

4

1

5

5

Dooskal village is one of the over exploited village with 101% stage of groundwater development, which indicates there is heavy withdrawal of ground water exceeding the annual replenishable reserves. It is also reported (as per data collected from the RWS Authorities ) that the groundwater in the village is with high fluoride contamination i.e. 2.6 ppm. Hence the village needs a systematic management strategy to sustain the ground water regime from further damage.

One day work shop at Dooskal village was conducted on 4/2/2010 to give awareness regarding the groundwater scenario and optimum utilisation of groundwater in the village.

Initially the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) conducted with regard to the social map of the village including surface / groundwater resources. Awareness created among the farmers / villagers with regard to the rain fall pattern, ground water levels & depletions, status of yields in the bore wells, fluoride contamination, ground water status and conditions supported for the over exploitation in the village. Subsequently explained regarding the efficient utilisation of groundwater, sharing of groundwater, artificial groundwater recharge methodologies, site specific selection of water harvesting structures etc.

During the programme presented the importance APWALTAct, registration of wells, spacing among the bore / dug wells, notified areas, investigations for selection of bore well sites - approachability through the mandal WALTA authorities, Insurance scheme etc.

The line departments like Agriculture, Horticulture, Micro Irrigation Project etc are also participated in the work shop and explained the villagers regarding the cropping pattern, crop water requirement, cost benefit ratio, latest technologies in the agriculture (SRI vari etc), subsidy schemes in horticulture, sprinklers, drip, agriculture implements etc. To

create more effectiveness the programme is also organized with the KALAJATHA team by singing songs, conversations, palle suddulu etc related to the groundwater.

To address the issues like depletion of water levels over exploitation, efficient GW utilization etc it is felt necessary to involve the ground water users in participatory Groundwater Management(PGM) through social regulation. This opportunity was provided to the GW department to involve as one of the stake holders in APCBTM Project.

Participatory Groundwater Management (PGM) in APCBTM Project

Objective:

Participatory Groundwater Management (PGM) component of APCBTMP aims at empowering groundwater users in the tank influence zone to wisely manage the dynamic groundwater resources, replenished through rainfall, surface water sources and return circulation from irrigated areas.

Operational Area:

46 tanks have been selected for Groundwater Interventions covering 19 mandals in Mahabubnagar District.

PGM proposes

PGM proposes to build the capacity of the community for collection, analysis and management of data on rainfall, groundwater recharge, and extraction leading to groundwater balance estimation. This would in turn facilitate crop planning and crop water budgeting by the community to arrive at decisions to balance recharge and draft. Over a few years, when the community would have generated reliable time series data, it will be feasible to do crop water budgeting more precisely and take precautionary measures for drought proofing.

These exercises will provide the community with knowledge and motivation for social regulation on groundwater and natural resources management. Improving water use efficiency and diversifying livelihoods are important strategies for sustainable groundwater management and adaptation to climate change. Issues of equity and vulnerability will be better addressed by an informed community, which controls and manages its own groundwater and other natural resources.

PHM Network

The PHM (Water level & Discharge measurement) equipment installed in 21 tanks covering 20 villages. 20 Rainguage station were established. PHM volunteers and paraworkers in the tank influence zone have come forward to spare their bore wells to make the necessary modifications for data collection. They also collect and record the PHM data regularly and discussed in WUA meetings.

PGM at Assessment Unit Level

The Ground Water Department (GWD) has identified 17 Assessment Units (AUs) with selected PGM tanks. It is proposed to construct 27 Piezometers at the rate of 3 nos per Assessment Units including existing piezometers. The 27 piezometers to be fitted with Automatic Water Level Recorders (AWLRs) to monitor the changing groundwater scenario in such AUs for preparing perspective plans and annual plans. This approach promotes community based natural resource management and wise water use for mitigating problems of climate change.

AU wise status of Piezometer & PHM equipment installed in Mahaboobnagar District.

Sl. No.

Name of the AUs identified

No. of tanks

Piezometer

PHM Equipment

Existing

Proposed

PHM Installed

Balance

RG Sites Selected

RGs installed

RGs to be installed

Remarks

1

D_44_ Addakal

1

1

2

5

0

1

1

2

D_44_ Koukuntla

3

1

2

5

10

1

1

2

3

D_44_ Dhanwada

7

1

2

25

10

4

4

2

4

D_44_ Makthal

1

2

1

5

0

1

1

0

5

D_44_ Narayanpet

3

2

1

15

0

3

3

0

6

D_44_ Maddur

3

2

1

5

10

1

1

2

7

D_44_ Kurmurthy

2

1

2

5

5

1

1

1

8

D_44_ Turkadinne

9

0

3

20

25

4

4

5

9

D_44_ Kollapur

2

3

0

5

5

1

1

1

10

D_45_ Ieeza

2

2

1

10

0

2

2

0

11

D_44_ Nandinne

1

0

3

5

0

1

1

0

12

D_44_Amrabad

1

1

2

0

5

1

13

D_44_Balmoor

2

1

2

0

10

2

14

D_44_Koilkonda

2

1

2

0

10

2

15

D_44_Kosgi

5

3

0

0

25

5

16

D_44_Nagarkurnool

1

2

1

0

5

1

17

D_44_Narva

1

1

2

0

5

1

Total

46

24

27

105

125

20

20

25

PGM Group Formation:

All Groundwater Users in the Zone of Influence (ZoI) including the command area of the tank selected for PGM interventions under the APCBTMP will be organized into PGM Groups, each group consisting of a maximum of TEN (10) user families

Two persons from each GW user family, of whom one must be a woman, shall become members of a PGM group. PGM groups shall be organized around a PHM well, comprising groundwater users from contiguous or nearby plots. Where there are more than 10 user families around a PHM well, more than ONE PGM group will be formed. Each PGM group may be designated with a local name for identity.

Functions of the PGM Groups:

The PHM volunteer and the PGM group members will take up monitoring the water levels and measuring the discharges.

Support the paraworkers in collection of data needed for Water Auditing and Crop Water Budgeting as per time schedule and record them in the prescribed format int eh relevant book

Support the water management para worker who take lead in mobilizing the PGM trainings and other related activities, meetings at the village level and also assit the PGM in proper monitoring of data of PHM well and maintenance of records.

The PGM group leader will coordinate with the WUA, Line departments, Support Organisations(SO) and other PGM groups/leaders with regard to crop water budgeting, trainings and capacity building activities as well as access to production enhancement interventions.

Capacity building

Capacity Building of PGM groups is carried out by Training Resource Persons (TRP) through specially designed training modules. Besides the PHM farmers, the trainings seek to build the capacities of the identified paraworkers to make PGM into a community initiative. Trainings were organized on Module-1 (Groundwater Resource Estimation), Module-2 (PHM Equipment Handling & Data collection, Recording, Display and dissemination) & Module 3 (Data collection related to CWB exercise) in 21 tanks.

Crop Water Budgeting (CWB)

The ultimate objective of the PGM initiative in a tank is to enable the groundwater user community to understand the resource position in the zone of influence through the data collected and analyzed by themselves. This would enable them to plan for appropriate crops in the ensuing RABI season. The process involves the following activities:

Collection of the data from the Zone of Influence of the tank

Collection of PHM data using the equipment supplied

Resource estimation using the analyzed PHM data and presenting them to the community

Preparation of crop plans for the ensuing RABI season and revisions based on consensus in CWB workshop

Crop plan adoption by the community

Promotion of social regulation, efficient water use, water sharing etc., leading to wise water use.

PGM at Assessment Unit level:

Based on the responses and enthusiasm of the GW users the District collector Mahabubnagar requested to take up PGM interventions in all 271 APCBTMP tanks in Mahabubnagar district. Accordingly initially it was proposed to take up PGM interventions in larger areas falling in 3 assessment units and initiated the process.

Sharing of Water:

Created awareness among the farmers whose lands are situated under the influence of APCBTM Project tanks to share their bore well water with neighboring farmers whose lands are also situated under the same influence area of the tanks, who do not have bore wells which will facilitate optimum utilization of GW to protect further exploitation of GW.

Out of the 46 tanks 704 farmers from 20 tanks came forward to share the groundwater with the neighbouring farmers.

To start with one among the 20 tanks i.e., at Revalli in Gopalpeta mandal processes were initiated to work out the methodology and social regulatory mechanisms to take forward these interventions in the project.

APCBTM Project (AT A GLANCE)

(AS ON END OF MARCH 2010)

S.No.

Item

2007-08

2008-09

1

No. of tanks referred for reconnoitary surveys

32

93+35=128

2

No. of tanks for which reconnoitary surveys conducted

32

64

3

No. of tanks selected after detailed surveys

21

25

4

No. of assessment units identified

11

12

5

No. of piezometers existing

15

9

6

No. of piezometers proposed

18

9

7

No. of piezometers constructed

12

---

8

No. of piezometers Protection works proposed

18

9

9

No. of piezometers Protection works constructed

12

---

10

No. of PHM wells selected

105

124

11

No. of tanks where PHM equipment installed (including water level monitoring indicator and stop watch)

21 tanks

---

12

No. of Rain gauge stations with protection works proposed

20

25

13

No. of Rain gauge stations with protection works completed

20

---

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